PA-ECCD 9: Child Supervision
ensures child safety and improves service quality.
Each child is monitored to ensure:
- arrival and departure is with a person approved by his or her parents;
- absences are documented;
- off-site whereabouts while under the supervision of the program are known and documented; and
- departure is not allowed with someone who poses a safety risk.
should provide direction on how to use appropriate agency or community
resources to respond to individuals who are intoxicated by drugs or alcohol, mentally or physically unstable, or who present any safety concern.
The child care center or child care home maintains caregiver-child ratios and group sizes that:
- allow caregivers to provide supervision that ensures child health and safety;
- allow caregivers to establish and maintain relationships with each child in the group;
- allow caregivers to offer a variety of activities and lessons that promote social, emotional, cognitive, and physical devlopment; and
- take into consideration the qualifications and competencies of the caregiver and the needs of the children in the group.
Interpretation: Generally, the provider maintains caregiver-child ratios that do not exceed COA's Recommended Caregiver-Child Ratios and Group Sizes. Caregivers assess and modify group size based on the special physical, social, or developmental needs of children within the group and the qualifications and competencies of the caregivers to ensure that children receive appropriate nurturance and supervision.
Note: Average daily attendance is acceptable for group size and ratios in childcare centers, as long as the agency has back-up help available when unusually large numbers of children are present. When more than six unrelated children are cared for in a child care home, the childcare provider is assisted by additional staff.
Research Note: Studies have shown that the child-caregiver ratio and the size of the group are correlated with social and cognitive outcomes for children. Some researchers suggest that lower ratios allow teachers to have more frequent and higher quality interactions with each child.
Caregiver-child ratios are maintained when a caregiver works individually with a child who is ill, requires separation from the group, needs special supervision or care, or has an emergency.
Mixed-age groupings are permitted if:
- the developmental needs of all children can be met;
- teachers are skilled in programming for mixed-aged groupings; and
- the group’s caregiver-child ratio is tailored with consideration given to the age of the youngest children in the group.
NA The agency does not offer mixed-age groupings.
Positive approaches are used to guide group interaction and individual behavior, and the agency prohibits:
- corporal punishment;
- interventions that involve withholding nutrition or hydration, or that inflict physical or psychological pain;
- ignoring the child;
- group punishment or discipline for individual behavior;
- labeling a child “good” or “bad”;
- the use of demeaning, shaming or degrading language or activities; and
- punitive overuse of time outs.